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URL: https://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2020-07-28-researchers-discover-cell-communication-mechanism-drives-cancer-adaptation
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Title: Researchers discover cell communication mechanism that drives cancer adaptation | University of Oxford
Description: Collaborative Cancer Research UK-funded studies from University of Oxford researchers have uncovered a new mechanism by which cancer cells adapt to the stresses they encounter as they grow and respond to therapies. This mechanism involves cells releasing small vesicles, known as exosomes.
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Texto: Researchers discover cell communication mechanism that drives cancer adaptation | University of Oxford Skip to main content Home Home Admissions Undergraduate Graduate Continuing education Research Divisions Research impact Libraries Innovation and Partnership Support for researchers Research in conversation Public Engagement with Research News & Events Events Science Blog Arts Blog Oxford and coronavirus Oxford and Brexit News releases for journalists Filming in Oxford Find An Expert About Organisation Facts and figures Oxford people Oxford Access International Oxford Building Our Future Jobs 牛津大学 Search News & Events Events First Animals Online University Events Office Science Blog Arts Blog Oxford and coronavirus Oxford and Brexit News releases for journalists Filming in Oxford Find An Expert Credit: Shutterstock Exosomes Published 28 Jul 2020 Share This Tweet Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Reddit Home News Researchers discover cell communication mechanism that drives cancer adaptation Researchers discover cell communication mechanism that drives cancer adaptation Cancer Research Collaborative Cancer Research UK-funded studies from University of Oxford researchers have uncovered a new mechanism by which cancer cells adapt to the stresses they encounter as they grow and respond to therapies. This mechanism involves cells releasing small vesicles, known as exosomes. This mechanism involves cells releasing small vesicles, known as exosomes. These contain complex mixtures of proteins, RNAs and other molecules, which can reprogramme surrounding cells. Exosomes are thought to be released by all cells in the body and play important roles in many processes in healthy individuals, such as immunity and reproduction. But, in cancer they can turn bad and drive pathological changes such as tumour growth and metastasis. Up until now, research has suggested that exosomes are made in compartments in cells, known as late endosomes, which are also used to keep cells healthy by clearing out damaged proteins and structures in the cell. By combining complementary analysis in fruit flies and human cancer cells, the collaborative teams have shown that exosomes are also made in the cell’s recycling system, which diverts reusable proteins away from the waste disposal system. They are called Rab11a-exosomes and carry a different set of cargos that may help cancers to grow and survive current treatments. As a tumour grows bigger, the cells within it are starved of key nutrients such as amino acids, and these stressed cells produce Rab11a-exosomes loaded with molecules made by the cancer cells. It’s becoming increasingly clear that anti-cancer therapies that block growth may need to be given in combination with drugs that prevent tumour cells adapting to the therapy, and reducing the production of these exosomes might be one important way to do this. According to Associate Professor Deborah Goberdhan, who led the research, ‘These ‘bad exosomes’ can then give other cells around them a growth-promoting boost and can potentially lead to selection of more aggressive cell types and a worse outcome. The production of Rab11a-exosomes may explain why some patients don’t respond to certain treatments and why others frequently develop resistance to therapies. ‘It’s becoming increasingly clear that anti-cancer therapies that block growth may need to be given in combination with drugs that prevent tumour cells adapting to the therapy, and reducing the production of these exosomes might be one important way to do this. ‘A key step will be to work out how the bad exosomes, that drive cancer progression, are made, so that therapies can be designed to block them. This is likely to take some time. However, developing ways to detect these exosomes in patient blood is an important shorter-term goal. Such an approach might detect cancer at early stages or predict how patients will respond to drugs, both of which could have a major impact on cancer survival and the design of more personalised treatments for patients.’ Dr Emily Farthing, Senior Research Information Manager at Cancer Research UK, said, ‘This exciting research has discovered that exosomes can act in a way we weren’t previously aware of, which could be helping tumours to grow and become resistant to anti-cancer treatments. This lab-based work is still a long way off benefitting people with cancer, but provides helpful clues to how we might be able to tackle the disease in new ways in future.’ The newly published research has already attracted further funding to start screening for these alternative exosomes in patients, and a major current focus of the team is to identify ways of blocking their production, so that their role in cancer pathology can be fully assessed. Such an approach might detect cancer at early stages or predict how patients will respond to drugs, both of which could have a major impact on cancer survival and the design of more personalised treatments for patients Professor Goberdhan said, ‘By continuing to combine analysis in human cancer cell lines and flies, we have started to highlight genetic manipulations that appear to specifically block the production of Rab11a-exosomes, which we are now following up.’ The study is a collaboration between the groups of Associate Professor Deborah Goberdhan and Professor Clive Wilson from the Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, and Professor Adrian Harris from the Department of Oncology, at The University of Oxford. This work has benefitted from additional funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, the Wellcome Trust and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Glutamine deprivation alters the origin and function of cancer cell exosomes Latest Researchers identify human influence as key agent of ocean warming patterns in the future 13 Aug 2020 Urgent action needed over plastic pollution crisis 12 Aug 2020 Will Hutton: Pessimism and optimism about the worst recession ever 12 Aug 2020 Oxford academics invite you to join the ‘Ten-Minute Book Club’ 11 Aug 2020 A novel strategy for using compounds as ‘anti-evolution’ drugs to combat antibiotic resistance 7 Aug 2020 All news Share This Tweet Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Reddit Connect with us iTunes Youtube Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Weibo Instagram Medium The Conversation Information About Oxford University Strategic plan Oxford's research Fees and funding Libraries Museums and collections Open days Oxford glossary Freedom of speech statement Statement on Modern Slavery Data privacy / GDPR Sport at Oxford Conferences at Oxford 牛津大学 Information For Prospective undergraduates Prospective graduate students Prospective Continuing Education students Prospective online/distance learning students Current Oxford students Current Oxford staff Oxford residents/Community Visitors/Tourists Media Alumni Teachers Parliamentarians Businesses/Partnerships Quick Links Contact search Jobs and vacancies Term dates Map Nexus365 email Giving to Oxford Oxford University Images © University of Oxford 2020 Contact us About this site Legal Privacy policy Cookie statement Accessibility Statement


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