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Title: Male mice hard-wired to recognize sex of other mice | News Center | Stanford Medicine
Description: The discovery, by Stanford researchers, of neurons that drive mice’s innate ability to identify the sex of other mice highlights the importance of biological influences on sex-specific behaviors.
Keywords: Front Page - Featured Item 3, Neuroscience, Homepage Featured News 2, Press, News
Texto: Male mice hard-wired to recognize sex of other mice | News Center | Stanford Medicine Skip to Content Skip to Local Navigation Skip to Global Navigation Stanford Medicine News Center Site Nav Menu See us on facebook See us on twitter See us on youtube See us on linkedin See us on instagram Stanford Medicine Explore Stanford Medicine Health Care Find a doctor Adult-care doctor Pediatrician or pediatric specialist Obstetrician Clinics & Services Adult care Pediatric care Obstetrics Clinical trials Locations Stanford Health Care Stanford Children's Health Emergency Department Dial 911 in the event of a medical emergency Explore Health Care Learn how we are healing patients through science & compassion Back Research Basic science departments Clinical science departments Institutes Research centers See full directory Research Resources Research administration Academic profiles Clinical trials Funding opportunities See all Professional Training Postdoctoral scholars Clinical research fellows Research News Stanford team stimulates neurons to induce particular perceptions in mice's minds Explore Research Learn how we are fueling innovation Back Education MD program PA Programs PhD programs Masters programs Continuing Medical Education Postdoctoral scholars Residencies & fellowships High School & Undergraduate Programs See all Education Resources Academic profiles School Administration Basic science departments Clinical science departments Alumni services Faculty resources Diversity programs Lane Library Student resources Education News Graduates urged to embrace lifelong learning, adapt to change at medical school’s 111th commencement Explore Education Learn how we empower tomorrow's leaders Back Give Support Stanford Medicine Support teaching, research, and patient care. Ways to give Why giving matters Make a gift online Support Children's Health Support Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford and child and maternal health Ways to give How your gift helps Make an online gift Back About About us News Contacts Maps & directions Leadership Vision Diversity Global health Community engagement Events How you can help Stanford School of Medicine Stanford Health Care Stanford Children's Health Back Site Search Submit Search Query News Center Home Front Page All News Topics Multimedia Email Tweet Male mice hard-wired to recognize sex of other mice The discovery, by Stanford researchers, of neurons that drive mice’s innate ability to identify the sex of other mice highlights the importance of biological influences on sex-specific behaviors. Jan 31 2019 Stanford researchers have identified the brain circuitry that enables male mice to quickly identify the sex of an unfamiliar mouse. Because mice and humans share some of the same hard-wired circuitry, the finding may also apply to humans. Liz Unger A male mouse identifies the sex of an unfamiliar mouse because of hard-wired brain physiology, not previous experience, Stanford University School of Medicine investigators have found. The researchers identified, for the first time in mammals, a small number of neurons in the male mouse brain driving a sexually inexperienced animal’s ability to speedily determine another mouse’s sex. Female mice also quickly determine a stranger’s sexual identity. But the circuitry in their brains that guides those decisions remains to be located.  “Surprisingly, recognition of a stranger’s sexual identity works completely differently in male and female mice,” said Nirao Shah , PhD, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and of neurobiology. The findings , described in a study published Jan. 31 in Cell , add to a small but growing list of mammalian brain circuits known to work differently in males and females. They inform a long-standing debate about the relative contributions of inherently hard-wired predispositions versus socially acquired influences in molding sex-specific behaviors.  Shah is the study’s senior author. The lead author is postdoctoral scholar Daniel Bayless, PhD. “Our findings show that males, at least, don’t need prior sexual experience in order to make fast, reliable decisions about closely approaching strangers,” Shah said. That makes good evolutionary sense. In its lifetime, a wild male mouse may get just a few shots at sexual reproduction, ratcheting up the advantage of being able to correctly identify a newcomer’s sex in short order without having to learn how first. If that ability is innately programmed, even a sexually inexperienced mouse can rapidly discern males from females of its species. The findings are likely to apply to humans, Shah said, because we share with mice much of the same hard-wired brain circuitry they use for recognizing a stranger’s sex and because human studies of this circuitry indicate significant structural and physiological differences between men and women.  “All social and sexual encounters are predicated on first correctly identifying the sex of the other agent,” Shah said. “It’s a fundamental decision animals make.”  Where and how mammals make such decisions was completely unknown prior to this study. But the investigators did have some ideas about where to start looking. Indispensable subset of neurons Numerous tissues responsive to sex hormones produce aromatase, an enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens — the active form of these sex hormones inside many cells. Aromatase turns up in about a half-dozen mouse-brain regions that Shah and his colleagues identified a decade ago. Some of these brain regions differ in their anatomy, physiology and behaviors they govern, depending on whether the brain is that of a male or a female. One such region is called the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This structure is twice as large and more densely populated with neurons in men than in women. Human studies have revealed different patterns of gene-activation levels in men’s versus women’s bed nucleus of the stria terminalis — a reliable clue that this structure’s function differs by sex. Nirao Shah A tiny fraction of this structure’s neurons, called AB neurons, produce aromatase. It’s these cells, about 1,000 on each side of a mouse’s 75-million-neuron brain, that Shah’s team has tied to sex recognition. “Prior to this study, AB neurons were for the most part unexplored territory,” he said. “They’ve been particularly hard to study because they’re interspersed among other superficially identical-appearing neurons. But Shah’s group has developed tools that let them both monitor signaling activity in AB neurons in freely moving mice and remotely stimulate or inhibit activity in just those neurons.  They used these tools to study and manipulate the AB neurons of male mice that had never been exposed to a female mouse besides their mothers and sisters during their first few weeks of life. Immediately after being weaned (and well before puberty), they’d been transferred to male-only housing and then, several days prior to the experiments, to solo housing.  It’s long been known that a male mouse on its own turf, whether it’s sexually naïve or experienced, responds predictably to the intrusion of another mouse. That response depends on the stranger’s sex, Shah said. “If it’s a female, the resident male will try to woo her. If it’s a male, he’ll pick a fight.”  Hard-wired differences As expected, when the researchers introduced a female into the naïve male’s habitat, not much more than a few minutes of sniffing and exploring passed before he tried to mate with her. When they introduced another male into the bachelor pad, the resident male went on the attack, also as anticipated. In both cases, the scientists observed an early uptick in the resident male’s AB neuron activity. But this increase was much greater when the stranger was a female. During the sexual behavior following the resident male’s recognition of a female, those neurons got even more excited. By contrast, their activity subsided during the ensuing fights with a male.  All social and sexual encounters are predicated on first correctly identifying the sex of the other agent. It’s a fundamental decision animals make. Even neutering a male didn’t affect the AB neurons’ ability to distinguish between the two sexes, further supporting the idea that this ability is developmentally hard-wired. When the researchers experimentally stifled AB neurons’ action during a male resident mouse’s encounter with a stranger of either sex, he morphed into a kind of wimp due to his suppressed sex-recognition capacity. “He wouldn’t fight with the males, and he wouldn’t mate with the females,” Shah said. Conversely, when the investigators stimulated activity in a resident male mouse’s AB neurons’ to mimic what happens when a male encounters a female, the resident was fooled into thinking that another male approaching him was a female. As a result, he tried to mate with the approaching male. Female mice’s AB neurons responded somewhat to the introduction of a strange mouse of either sex, but showed no particular difference in activity whether the stranger was male or female. Even experimental manipulations that eliminated the females’ AB neurons had no obvious effect on their social behaviors.  “These nerve cells’ role in the female brain is mysterious,” Shah said. “Females apparently use a different neural system to recognize sex of other individuals. What that system might be is still anybody’s guess.” He said he intends to find out. Shah is a member of Stanford Bio-X and the Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute at Stanford, and is a Stanford ChEM-H faculty fellow. Other study co-authors are postdoctoral scholar Taehong Yang, PhD; and undergraduate research assistants Matthew Mason, Albert Susanto and Alexandra Lobdell. The work was funded by the National Institutes of Health (grants R01NS049488 and R01NS083872). Stanford’s departments of Neurobiology and of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences also supported the work. Press Releases By Bruce Goldman Bruce Goldman is a science writer for the medical school’s Office of Communication & Public Affairs. Email him at . Stanford Medicine integrates research, medical education and health care at its three institutions - Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford Health Care (formerly Stanford Hospital & Clinics) , and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford . For more information, please visit the Office of Communication & Public Affairs site at . Go Related News Social influences can override aggression in male mice A tiny set of nerve cells in a male mouse’s brain activates aggression. But a new Stanford study shows that the male’s susceptibility to this activation depends on whether it has been housed with other mice or in isolation. July 27, 2017 Media Contacts Bruce Goldman Tel 650-725-2106 Margarita Gallardo Tel 650-723-7897 Leading in Precision Health Stanford Medicine is leading the biomedical revolution in precision health, defining and developing the next generation of care that is proactive, predictive and precise.  Learn more A Legacy of Innovation Stanford Medicine's unrivaled atmosphere of breakthrough thinking and interdisciplinary collaboration has fueled a long history of achievements. View timeline News Center News Center Office of Communication & Public Affairs For Journalists

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